In radiation therapy, healthy cells need to be protected when cancer cells are exposed to high concentrations of radioactive material. A significant number of natural and synthetic substances have been evaluated for that purpose but have been largely unsuccessful in clinical terms due to side effects and toxicity. Therefore, it is urgent to find a substance that protects cells from the harmful effects of radioactive substances without side effects. Fortunately, the creator always has its own way and that is why we have Ganoderma lucidum that can take on that role. There have been many studies in the world conducted on two active ingredients betaglucan, triterpen- Ganoderma lucidum to demonstrate the ability to protect DNA with the following recommended mechanisms:
Betaglucan protects DNA from high concentrations of radiation.
Betaglucan in medicinal mushrooms in general and Ganoderma lucidum in particular has the remarkable ability to protect human lymphocyte DNA from radiation damage thanks to its DNA repair ability and antioxidant activity.
Betaglucan is highly effective in reducing anomalies in chromosome structure helping to protect against single and double strand breaks in chromosomes, in addition to can enhance DNA repair in human lymphocytes . Polysaccharides in fungi prevent cancer formation, have antitumor activity, directly against various heterogeneous and synthetic tumors, in addition prevent tumor metastasis.
Triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum help prevent cell membrane and DNA damage caused by gamma radiation.
Cell membranes and DNA are important targets for radiation-induced inactivation in biological systems. The interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems leads to the generation of free radicals. When these free radicals are produced, the body naturally has a defense against them thanks to a system of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. However, if the amount of free radicals produced is too large, the antioxidant enzyme system overloads not enough to block all free radicals, and then the free radicals will cause membrane fat oxidation. this leads to destruction of the membrane structure and inactivation of membrane-binding enzymes. In particular, the membranes surrounding cells and organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes and peroxisomes are more susceptible to attack because they contain a large number of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) chains – a type of fat. Very susceptible to oxidation. PUFA oxidation tends to decrease membrane fluidity, which is considered essential for the normal functioning of biofilms.
T.P. Smina , Strayo De , T.P.A. Devasagayam et al (2011) “Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes prevent radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in splenic lymphocytes in vitro” Mutation Research 726, 188–194
Femy Martin and Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair (2011) “Medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum protects cellular DNA in mice exposed to whole-body gamma radiation” Int. J. Low Radiation, Vol. 8, No.3
T.P. Smina, D.K. Maurya , T.P.A. Devasagayam , K.K. Janardhanan (2015) “Protection of radiation induced DNA and membrane damages by total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst” chemico-Biological Interactions 233, 1–7.
Thulasi G. Pillai1, Dharmendra K. Maurya2, Veena P. Salvi et al (2014) “Fungal beta glucan protects radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes” Ann Transl Med 2(2):13